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Alers V.M. 2008 “The 20th Vona du Toit Memorial lecture 2007. Proposing the social atom of occupational therapy:Dealing with trauma as part of an integrated inclusive intervention.” South African Journal of Occupational Therapy, 38, 3, (3 – 10).

Alers , V. M. (2013). In Therapeutic spiral model perspective from South Africa—The rainbow nation. essay. Retrieved from

Alers, V. & Crouch, R. (2014). Trauma and its effects on children, adolescents and adults. Occupational Therapy in  Psychiatry and Mental Health, 337-355. doi:10.1002/9781118913536.ch21

Alexander, N. & Ciotola, L. (2014).Teamwork and trauma recovery. The Journal of Psychodrama, Sociometry and Group Psychotherapy. Vol 62 (1), 91-104.

APA. (n.d.). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Retrieved from

American Psychological Assocation. PTSD: National Center for PTSD Comparison of the ICD-10 PTSD Diagnosis With the DSM-IV Criteria -. (n.d.). Retrieved September 02, 2016, from 

Bacallao, M. & Smokowski, P.R. (2017a) Entre Dos Mundos/Between Two Worlds: Using the Acculturation Spectrogram in Psychodrama Intervention for Promoting Biculturalism in Immigrant Families. The Journal of Psychodrama, Sociometry, and Group Psychotherapy 65(1), 41-56

Bacallao, M. & Smokowski, P.R. (2017b) Navigating the Web of Worries: Using Psychodrama Techniques to Help Latino Immigrant Families Manage Acculturation Stress. The Journal of Psychodrama, Sociometry, and Group Psychotherapy 65(1), 57-73

Baim, C. (2017). ‘Psychodrama,’ in Colin Feltham, Terry Hanley and Laura Ann Winter (Eds.) The Sage Handbook of Counselling and Psychotherapy (4th edition).Los Angeles, CA and London: Sage Publications.

Baim, C. . (2014). Baim C integrating psychodrama with Attachment theory implications for practice. Scribd., from

Baim, C. (2010). ‘Psychodrama,’ in Irving B. Weiner and W. Edward Craighead (Eds.) The Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology (4th edition, vol. 3: M-Q). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons.

Baratka, C. (1995). Incorporating Principles of the Therapeutic Spiral Model When an Action Trauma Team is not Available.

Bion, W. R. (2013). Attacks on linking. Retrieved from 

Blatner, A. (1996). Acting-In: Practical applications of psychodramatic methods (3rd ed.). Retrieved from,%20Third%20Edition%20Adam%20Blatner%20MD%20220p_0826114024_B.pdf 

Blatner, A. (2004). Psychodrama. In R. J. Corsini & D. Wedding (Eds.), Current psychotherapies (7th ed.). essay,

Bradshaw-Tauvon, K. (2014). Psychodrama informed by adaptive information processing (AIP): The theory underpinnin geye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). In P. Holmes, M. Farrall, & K. Kirk (Eds) Empowering Therapeutic Practice: Integrating psychodrama into other therapies. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers 

Brederode, A., Levine, E. G., Levine, S. K. (1998). Layer upon layer: A healing experience in the art studio. . In Foundations of Expressive Arts Therapy: Theoretical and clinical perspectives (pp. 151–170). essay, J. Kingsley Publishers.

Buchanan, D. R., & Swink, D. F. (2017). Golden age of psychodrama at Saint Elizabeths Hospital (1939–2004). The Journal of Psychodrama, Sociometry, and Group Psychotherapy, 65(1), 9–32. 

Burden, K., & Ciotola, L. (n.d.). “The body double: An advanced clinical action intervention module in the therapeutic spiral model to treat trauma”. Healing Bridges. Retrieved from

Calhoun, L. G., Tedeschi, R. G., & Amir, M. (2014). Handbook of Posttraumatic Growth: Research and Practice. Psychology Press. Retrieved from

Carnabucci, K. (2014). Show and Tell Psychodrama: Skills for Therapists, Coaches, Teachers, and Leaders. Racine Wisconsin: Nusanto Publishing.

Carnabucci, K. & Ciotola, L. (2013). Healing Eating Disorders with Psychodrama and Other Action Methods: Beyond the Silence and the Fury. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers

Casson, J., Karp, M. , Holmes, P., & Tauvon, K. B. (2005). The stage: The theatre of psychodrama. In The Handbook of Psychodrama (1st edn.). essay. Retrieved from

Ciotola, L. (2017). Action Methods/Psychodrama Archives – Page 2 of 2 – Healing Bridges ( Healing Bridges. Retrieved from 

Clark, T. L., & Davis-Gage, D. (2010). Treating trauma: Using psychodrama in groups. Retrieved from

Cossa, M. (2020). Building resilience in youth with Therapeutic Spiral ModelTM (TSM) psychodrama Working with post-high-school youth in Bali, Indonesia

Cossa, M. (2019). Circle of Values: Action Approaches in Indonesian Education.

Cossa, M. (2012). Mask cards. photograph.

Courtois, C. A. (1988). Healing the incest wound: Adult survivors in therapy. Norton. Retrieved from

Cozolino, L. J. (2010). The Neuroscience of Psychotherapy: Healing the Social Brain. W. W. Norton & Company. Retrieved from

Cozolino, L. (2014). The Neuroscience of Human Relationships: Attachment and the Developing Social Brain (Second edition). Retrieved from

Cozolino, L. J. (2015). Why therapy works: Using our minds to change our brains. W.W. Norton & Company. Retrieved from

Dayton, T. (2015). NeuroPsychodrama in the Treatment of Relational Trauma: A Strength-based, Experiential Model for Healing PTSD. Deerfield Beach, FL: Health Communications, Inc.

Dayton, T. (2016). Neuropsychodrama in the treatment of relational trauma: Relational trauma repair—An experiential model for treating posttraumatic stress disorder. The Journal of Psychodrama, Sociometry, and Group Psychotherapy, 64(1), 41-50. doi:10.12926/0731-1273-64.1.41.

di Pellegrino, G., Fadiga, L., Fogassi, L., Gallese, V., & Rizzolatti, G. (1992). Understanding motor events: A neurophysiological study – experimental brain research. SpringerLink. Retrieved from

Durost, S.W. (2011). Old is an attitude – age is a concept: A qualitative study on aging and ageism with guidelines for expressive therapies literature (dissertation).

Elliott, R., Greenberg, L., and Lietaer, G.  (2002). Research on experiential psychotherapy. In M. Lambert, A. Bergin, and S. Garfield (5th Ed.), Handbook of psychotherapy and behavior Change (493-540). New York, NY: Wiley.

Elliott, R., Watson, J., Greenberg, L.S., Timulak, L., & Freire, E. (2013). Research on humanistic-experiential psychotherapies. In M. Lambert, A. Bergin, and S. Garfield (Eds.), Handbook of  psychotherapy and behavior Change. (6th Ed). (pp. 495-538). New York, NY:  Wiley.. New York: Wiley.  ©Wiley.

Forst, M. (2001). The therapeutic spiral model: A qualitive enquiry of its effectiveness in the treatment of trauma and addiction. (thesis).

Forst, M. (2017). Wobble diagram. photograph.

Friedman, M. J. (2015). Overview of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Post-traumatic and Acute Stress Disorders, (6th Ed) 1-8.  doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-15066-6_1

Gallese, V., Fadiga, L., Fogassi, L., & Rizzolatti, G. (1996, April 1). Action recognition in the premotor cortex. OUP Academic. Retrieved from

Gantt, S. P., Badenoch, B., Flores. P. (2013). Group psychotherapy and neuro-plasticity: An attachment theory perspective. In The interpersonal neurobiology of group psychotherapy and group process (1st edition, pp. 51–72). essay, Routledge.

Gantt, S. P., Badenoch, B. (n.d.). The interpersonal neurobiology of group psychotherapy and group process (1st ed.). Retrieved from

Gantt, S., Agazarian, Y. (2015). Developing the group mind through functional subgrouping: Linking systems-centered training (SCT) and interpersonal neurobiology. In Badenoch, B. & Gantt, S. P. (Eds.), The interpersonal neurobiology of group psychotherapy and group process (pp. 73–102). essay. Retrieved from

Gelinas, D. J. (1983). The persisting negative effects of incest. Taylor & Francis. Retrieved from

Giacomucci, S. (2021). Social Work, sociometry, and psychodrama. SpringerLink. Retrieved from

Giacomucci, S., Maya, J., Maraver, J. (2021). Traumatic stress and spontaneity: Trauma-focused and strength-based psychodrama. In Psychodrama: Advances in psychotherapy and psychoeducational interventions. essay.

Giacomucci, S. (2021). Social Work, sociometry, and psychodrama. SpringerLink. Retrieved from

Giacomucci, S., Marquit, J. (2020, April 14). The effectiveness of trauma-focused psychodrama in the treatment of PTSD in inpatient substance abuse treatment. Frontiers. Retrieved from

Greenberg, L. S. (2013). Anchoring the therapeutic spiral model into research on experiential psychotherapies.In K. Hudgins &  F. Toscani (Eds.), Healing world trauma with the therapeutic spiral model. (pp. 132-148) London:  Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

Greenberg, L. S., Watson, J. C., & Lietaer, G. (1998). Handbook of experiential psychotherapy. New York: Guilford Press. 

Hale, A. E. (1985). Conducting clinical sociometric explorations: A manual for psychodramatists and sociometrists (1st workbook ed edition). Retrieved from

Hale, A. E., Levine, S. K. (n.d.). Living artfully: Movement as an integrative process. In Levine, E. G. (Ed.), Foundations of expressive arts therapy: Theoretical and clinical perspectives (pp. 133–150). essay.

Herman, J. L. (1997). Trauma and recovery (Rev. ed.). Retrieved from

Hudgins, K. (2022). Transformación del Triángulo del trauma – TSM. La hoja de psicodrama. Retrieved from

Hudgins, M.K. (2002). Experiential treatment for PTSD. Springer Publishing Company. Retrieved from

Hudgins, M.K.(2019) Psychodrama Revisited: Through the Lens of the Internal Role Map of the Therapeutic Spiral Model to Promote Post-traumatic Growth. Published online

Hudgins, M.K. (2017) PTSD Unites the World: Prevention, Intervention and Training in The Therapeutic Spiral Model. In C.E. Stout and G. Want (eds).Why Global Health Matters:Guidebook for Innovation and Inspiration. Self-Published Online.

Hudgins, K. (2013). The similarities and differences between classical psychodrama and the therapeutic spiral model. In Toscani, F. (Ed.), Healing world trauma with the therapeutic spiral model: Psychodramatic stories from the frontlines (pp. 49–74). essay. http://www.

Hudgins, M. K. (1998). Defenses workshop handout.

Hudgins, K., Brooke, S. L., Myers, C. E.(2015). Spiral healing: A thread of energy and connections across cultures. In Therapists creating a cultural tapestry: Using the creative therapies across cultures. essay, Charles C Thomas, Publisher, Ltd.

Hudgins, M.K. (2007b). Clinical Foundations of the Therapeutic Spiral Model: Theoretical Orientations and Principles of Change. (eds) In C. Baim, J. Burmeister & M. Maciel (Eds.) Psychodrama: Advances in Theory and Practice. (pp. 175-188) London: Routledge.

Hudgins, M.K. & Drucker, K. (1998). The containing double as part of the therapeutic spiral model for treating trauma survivors. The International Journal of Action Methods, 51, 2, 63-74.

Hudgins, M.K., Drucker, K., & Metcalf, K. (2000). The containing double: A clinically effective psychodrama intervention for PTSD. The British Journal of Psychodrama and Sociodrama, 15, 1, 58-77.

Hudgins, K., Durost, S. W., Honig, M. (n.d.). Therapeutic spiral model psychodrama around the world: Cultural connections. In Taboada, C. M. (Ed.), IAGP transcultural book working with cultural diversity. essay.

Hudgins, M. K., Hug, E., Culbertson, R. (2009). Action against trauma: A trainer’s manual.

Hudgins, K., Kellermann, P. F. (2000). Psychodrama with trauma survivors: Acting out your pain – researchgate. Retrieved from Psychodrama with trauma survivors: Acting out your pain. 229–254

Hudgins, M.K., and Kiesler, D.J. (1987). Individual experiential psychotherapy: An initial validation study of the intervention module of psychodramatic doubling. Psychotherapy, 24, 245-255.

Hudgins, M.K. & Kiesler, D.J. (1985). Individual Experiential Psychotherapy: An Initial Validation Study of the Intervention Module of Psychodramatic Doubling. Unpublished Dissertation. Virginia Commonwealth University.

Hudgins, M.K. and Kiesler, D.J. (1984). Instructional Manual for Doubling in Individual Psychotherapy. Richmond, Virginia: Virginia Commonwealth University.

Hudgins, M.K. & Preston, J.C. (1981). Psychodramatic expansion of the Johari window. Journal of Group Psychotherapy, Psychodrama, and Sociometry

Hudgins, M.K., Drucker, K., & Metcalf, K.. (1998). Instructional Manual for the intervention module of Containing Double. Charlottesville, VA.: The Center for Experiential Learning. A_clinically_effective_.pdf?paperid=765781

Hudgins, K., Sheridan, M. J. (1990). The three-child model of recovery.

Hudgins, K. & Toscani, F. (2014). Containment = Safety with action methods. The Journal of Psychodrama, Sociometry and Group Psychotherapy, 62, (1), 105-110.

Hudgins, K. & Toscani, F. (2013). Healing World Trauma with The Therapeutic Spiral Model: Stories From the Frontlines. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

Hug, E. (2013). A Neuroscience perspective on trauma and action methods. In K. Hudgins, & F. Toscani (Eds.), Healing world trauma with the therapeutic spiral model. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

Forssmann-Falck, R.F. and Hudgins, M.K. (1992). “Therapist-Patient Transactions Early in Treatment with Borderline Patients. Clinical Review, 6, (1), 1-4.

Israel, S. (2019) Integrated Care for the Traumatized. The Therapeutic Spiral Model: A Psychodramatic  Whole Person Approach for Working with Trauma.

Israel, S. (2016). The containing double sequence: An expansion of the therapeutic spiral model.

Jiliberto Herrera, A., Hudgins, K. (2022, July 27). Hablando con Kate Hudgins. La Hoja de Psicodrama. Revista de la Asociación Española de Psicodrama. Retrieved from

Johnson, D. R. (1998). Apa PsycNet. American Psychological Association. Retrieved from

Karpman, S. (1968). Fairy tales and script drama analysis – karpman drama triangle. Transactional Analysis Bulletin. Retrieved from

Kellermann, P. F. (1992). Focus on psychodrama: The therapeutic aspects of psychodrama – researchgate. Retrieved from

Keltner, D., Ekman, P. (2015, July 3). The science of ‘inside out’. The New York Times. Retrieved from

Kinnell, G. (1980, January 1). Mortal acts, mortal words (1980 edition). Open Library. Retrieved from 

Klein, M. (1946). Klein notes on some schizoid mechanisms – Retrieved from

Knill, P. J., Levine, E. G., Levine, S. K. (1999). Soul nourishment, or the intermodal language of imagination. Foundations of Expressive Arts therapy – theoretical and Clinical Perspective PDF. Retrieved from pp. 37–52

Laat, P. de. (2005). Psychodrama: 9789023241843: P. De Laat: Boeken. Psychodrama | 9789023241843 | P. de Laat | Boeken. Retrieved from

Lai, N.W., (2013). A workshop using the therapeutic spiral model and art therapy with mothers and children affected by domestic abuse in Taiwan In K. Hudgins, & F. Toscani, Healing world trauma with the therapeutic spiral model, (241-265). London: Jessica Kingsley.

Lane, R. D., Ryan, L., Nadel, L., & Greenberg, L. (2005). Memory reconsolidation, emotional arousal, and the process of change in psychotherapy: New insights from brain science: Behavioral and brain sciences. Cambridge Core. Retrieved from

Lawrence, C. (2015). The Caring Observer: Creating Self-Compassion Through Psychodrama. The Journal of Psychodrama, Sociometry, and Group Psychotherapy 63(1): 65-72

Levine, E. G., Levine, S. K. . (1999). On the playground: Child psychology and expressive arts therapy. Foundations of expressive arts therapy: Theoretical and clinical perspectives. Retrieved from pp. 257–273

Levine, P. A. (2015). Trauma and Memory: Brain and Body in a Search for the Living Past: A Practical Guide for Understanding and Working with Traumatic Memory. Retrieved from

McVea, C. and Gow, K. (2006). Healing a mother’s emotional pain:  Recall of a therapeutic spiral model session. Journal of Psychodrama, Group Psychotherapy and Sociometry, 59, 1, 3-2

McVea, C., Gow, K., and Lowe, R. (2011). Corrective interpersonal experience in psychodrama  group psychotherapy:  A comprehensive process analysis of significant therapeutic events.  Psychotherapy Research, 21, 4, 416-429.

Megele, C. (2015, July 5). The role of emotional labour, mentalization, empathy & mindfulness in practice education. Retrieved from

Meichenbaum, D. (2017). A constructive narrative perspective on trauma and resilience: The role … Retrieved from 

Miller, D. (1992). Are we keeping up with Oprah? Taylor & Francis. Retrieved from

Molnar-Szakacs, I., Overy, K. (2006). Music and mirror neurons: From motion to ’e’motion. Retrieved from

Moreno, J. L. (1934). Who shall survive?: A new approach to the problem of human interrelations. Retrieved from

Moreno, J. L. (1993). Who shall survive? foundations of sociometry, group psychotherapy and Sociodrama. Journal of the American Medical Association. Retrieved from

Moreno, J. L., Moreno, Z. T. (1959). Psychodrama ; Second Volume: Foundations of psychotherapy. Amazon. Retrieved from

Moreno, J. L., Moreno, Z. T. (1969). Psychodrama. Beacon House.

Moreno, Z., Hudgins, K., Toscani, F., Blatner. (2012, December 15). A life in psychodrama. 123Library. Retrieved from Healing world trauma with the therapeutic spiral model: Psychodramatic stories from the frontlines. pp. 33–48

Moreno, Z. T., Horvatin, T. , Schreiber, E. (2006). The function of “Tele” in human relations. . Perlego. Retrieved from The quintessential Zerka: Writings by Zerka Toeman Moreno on psychodrama, sociometry and group psychotherapy (First issued in paperback, pp. 289–301).

Moreno, Z.T. (2012). To Dream Again: A Memoir. Retrieved from

Myers, M. A., Levine, S. K., Levine, E. G. (2000). In exile from the body: Creating a “play room” in the “waiting room. Foundations of Art Therapy Theory and Applications. Amazon. Retrieved from (pp. 241–256).

Newham, P., Levine, S. K., Levine, E. G. , (2001). Voicework as therapy: The artistic use of singing and vocal sound to heal mind and body. Foundations of Expressive Arts therapy – theoretical and Clinical Perspective PDF. Scribd. Retrieved from (pp. 89–112)

Noice, H., Noice, T. (2009). An arts intervention for older adults living in subsidized retirement homes. Taylor & Francis. Retrieved from

Nolte, J. (2014). The philosophy, theory and methods of J. L. Moreno: The man who tried to become god (1st ed.). Retrieved from

Nolte, J. (2020). J.L. Moreno and the psychodramatic method: On the practice of psychodrama. Retrieved from

Ogden, T. H. (1979). On projective identification. International Journal of Psychoanalysis. Retrieved February 28, 2023, from

Orkibi, H., Feniger-Schaal, R. (n.d.). Integrative systematic review of psychodrama psychotherapy research: Trends and methodological implications. Retrieved from

Panksepp, J. (1998). The periconscious substrates of consciousness: Affective states and the evolutionary origins of the self. Retrieved from

Payne, P., Crane-Godreau, M.A., & Levine, P.A. (2015). Somatic experiencing: Using interoception and proprioception as core elements of trauma therapy. Frountiers in Psychology. Retrieved from

Perry, R., Saby, K., Wenos, R., Hudgins, K. and Baller, M. (2016). Psychodrama intervention for female service members using the therapeutic spiral model. The Journal of Psychodrama, Sociometry, and Group Psychotherapy, 64, 1, 11-23.

Perry, R., Baller, M., Hudgins, K., Wenos, R., Saby, K. (2021). Social Work, Sociometry, and Psychodrama. Retrieved from

Perry, R., Baller, S., Hudgins, K., Wenos, J., Saby, K. (2016). Psychodrama intervention for female service members using the therapeutic spiral model. Retrieved from

Porges, S. W. (2017). The pocket guide to the polyvagal theory: The transformative power of feeling safe (Illustrated edition). Retrieved from

Propper, H. (2018). Practical sociometry: Directing spectograms and locograms. Retrieved from

Ragsdale, K.G., Cox, R.D., Finn, P. and Eisler, R.M. (1996). Effectiveness of short-term specialized inpatient treatment for war related posttraumatic stress disorder:  A role for adventure-based counseling and psychodrama. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 9, 269-283.

Rausch, S.L., van der Kolk,B., Fishler, R.E., Alpert, N.M. et al. (1996). A symptom provocation study of post-traumatic stress disorder using positron emission tomography and script- driven imagery. Archives of General Psychiatry 53,5, 380-387

Rogers, N. (n.d.). The Creative Connection: Expressive Arts as Healing. Retrieved from

Schore, A. N. (2002). Clinical implications of a psychoneurobiological model of projective identification. In Alhanati, S. (Ed.), Primitive Mental States, Volume 2: Psychobiological and Psychoanalytic Perspectives on Early Trauma and Personality Development (pp. 1–65). essay. Retrieved from

Schore, A. (2021, February 28). Affect regulation and the repair of the self. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. Retrieved from

Schore, A. N., Minde, K. (2006, May). Affect dysregulation and disorders of the self. Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Retrieved from

Schreiber, E., Sadock, B. J. , Sadock, V. A. , Ruiz, P. , Kaplan, H. I. . (2009). Psychodrama, sociometry, sociodrama, and sociatry. In Kaplan & Sadock’s comprehensive textbook of psychiatry (9th ed.) (pp. 2952–2957). essay. Retrieved from

Schreiber, E. (2019). Sociatry: A tool to heal society and reveals the godhead. Expanding horizons: Using action methods to join all humanity, Dallas, Texas.

Schreiber, E. J., Barcroft, A. (n.d.). The enlightenment tradition of Jacob Levy Moreno and the legacy of sociatry. In Linden, S. B. (Ed.), The heart and soul of psychotherapy: A transpersonal approach through theater arts, drama therapy—Psychodrama—Transformational theater. essay.

Siegel, D. J. (2010). Mindsight: The New Science of Personal Transformation. Retrieved from

Siegel, D. J. (2012). The developing mind, second edition: how relationships and the brain interact to shape who we are (2nd ed.). Retrieved from

Siegel, D. J. (2012). Pocket Guide to Interpersonal Neurobiology: An Integrative Handbook of the Mind. Retrieved from

Thys, M. (2015). Projectieve identificatie tussen doodsdrift en intersubjectiviteit. Retrieved from

Tomasulo, D. J. (2020). Learned hopefulness. Retrieved from

Toscani, F. (1993). The containing double.

Toscani, F. (1994). Wholeness of the action trauma team.

Toscani, F. (1994). The trauma survivor’s intrapsychic role atom. Retrieved from’s_Inner_Role_Atom_A_Clinical_Map_for_Posttraumatic_Growth

Toscani, F., Hudgins, M. K. (1998). The containing double.

Van der Kolk, B. (1991). Childhood traumas: An outline and overview. the american journal of psychiatry. Retrieved from

Van der Kolk, B. (1993). Lost in familiar places: creating new connections between the individual and society (Reissue ed.). Retrieved from

Van der Kolk, B. A. (2002). Posttraumatic therapy in the age of neuroscience. Taylor & Francis. Retrieved from

Van der Kolk, B. (2006). Clinical implications of neuroscience in PTSD. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences,1071(1), 277-293,

Van der Kolk, B. A. (2014). The body keeps the score: Brain, mind, and body in the healing of trauma. New York,NY: Viking.

Wald, J. (2003). Clinical art therapy with older adults. Handbook of art therapy. Retrieved from

White, J. L., Fodor, K. E., Unterhitzenberger, J., Chou, C., Kartal, D., Leistner, S., Alisic, E. (2014). Is traumatic stress research global? A bibliometric analysis. Retrieved August 23,

Wieser, M. (2007). Studies on treatment effects of psychodrama psychotherapy. In C. Baim, Clark, J. Burmeister, & M. Maciel, Manuela (Eds.). (2007). Psychodrama: Advances in theory and practice (pp. 271-292). New York: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group.

Wieser, M. (2011). Studies on Treatment Effects of Psychodrama Psychotherapy. In C. M. D. Sales, G. Moita, & J. Frommer (Eds.), Methodological Diversity in Psychotherapy and Counselling Research: Qualitative-Quantitative Approach. 1st International Summer School for Psychotherapy and Counseling Research – Proceedings (pp. 37-40, 111-124). Lisbon: Universidade Autónoma de Lisboa. Retrieved from

Winnicott, D. W. (2021). The child, the family, and the outside world. Retrieved from



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